From Pole to Pole: Exploring the Untamed Beauty of the Arctic - 03

by Laine Ye on Jun 30, 2024

From Pole to Pole: Exploring the Untamed Beauty of the Arctic - 03

The Arctic ice cap is a massive ice sheet formed by the freezing of seawater, covering a portion of the Arctic Ocean. During the summer, the ice cap melts and forms floating ice, which floats on the surface of the ocean. Due to climate change and the melting of the Arctic ice, previously ice-covered areas have become accessible, providing opportunities for archaeologists to conduct archaeological excavations on Arctic ice floes. Ancient hunting camps, tools, wood, and bones have been discovered in the Arctic region, providing insights into ancient human life and adaptation to the environment in the Arctic.

Scientists utilize research stations and measurement devices on Arctic ice floes to conduct extensive research on the Arctic environment. They monitor factors such as ocean temperature, ice thickness, marine biodiversity, and more to understand the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

In 1926, the first dirigible capable of navigating landed at the North Pole. In 1978, a Japanese solo adventurer reached the North Pole on a sled pulled by dogs, marking the first solo journey to the North Pole in human history. In 1986, a French doctor completed the first solo ski trip to the North Pole relying solely on human strength.

Since the 20th century, with advancements in technology, scientific expeditions to the Arctic have become more frequent, leading to the establishment of numerous scientific research stations in the Arctic region. Scientific research provides in-depth knowledge of the Arctic region and offers important data and insights for understanding the past, addressing future climate change, and protecting the ecological environment.

Arctic research stations play a crucial role and serve various functions in the Arctic region. As important platforms for scientific research, these stations enable scientists and researchers to conduct multidisciplinary research projects, including climate change, marine ecosystems, Earth sciences, biodiversity, atmospheric physics, and more. They contribute to our understanding of the Arctic region, predicting future changes and impacts, as well as protecting the ecological environment.

Years of scientific research and observational data indicate that the Arctic region is experiencing significant climate warming, with temperatures rising at a rate more than twice the global average. Arctic sea ice is rapidly decreasing, and the melting of permafrost further exacerbates global climate warming. Additionally, the melting ice leads to rising sea levels and a decline in the number of plants and animals that rely on sea ice as habitat and a food source. These changes have negative implications for global food supply, water resources, ecological balance, and contribute to the occurrence of frequent extreme weather events.

With the reduction of Arctic sea ice, new shipping routes are becoming feasible, including the Northern Sea Route. This route traverses the Arctic Ocean, providing a shorter shipping route connecting Asia, Europe, and North America, reducing fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and offering a more convenient trade route. The "Arktika" nuclear-powered icebreaker is the largest and most powerful icebreaker built by Russia. With the Arctic ice cap melting due to climate change, Russia has capitalized on the opportunity and opened new routes in the Arctic using a fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers.